Collective administration of Neighbouring Rights
NORMA represents the interests of performers such as musicians, actors, singers, dancers or any other person who acts, sings, delivers or otherwise performs an artistic work. NORMA grants fair remuneration for the use of their performances.
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NORMA was established in 1996 by two Dutch trade unions for i.a. performers, in order to collectively manage neighbouring rights. As it is almost impossible and highly impractical for a performer to individually administer his or her neighbouring rights, collective management is considered to be the most efficient method to monitor, enforce and license the rights and performances. Almost 14.000 Dutch performers have assigned their neighbouring rights to NORMA. In addition, NORMA also represents foreign performers through NORMA’s reciprocal agreements with equivalent organisations in other countries.
Levies received by NORMA from Stichting Thuiskopie (Private copy right office) and Stichting Leenrecht (Public lending right office) are distributed to performers. NORMA’s main effort is to maintain a distribution based on actual use of performances, e.g. information on the quantities of private copies made or carriers (e.g. CD’s, DVD’s) lend and the performers involved. NORMA also collects proportionate equitable remuneration for broadcasting of films and other tv-programs.
One of NORMA’s main goals is to represent the interests of performers in the broadest sense. This goal serves as a guideline for action and provides the parameters for strategic plans.
In order to improve the rights and conditions of the performer, NORMA attempts to influence decisions made by the government, such as legislation, by means of intensive lobbying. Furthermore, in the past years, NORMA has instituted legal proceedings against the Dutch State, resulting in a renewed and improved private copying scheme.
NORMA also looks out for the interests of individual performers and is empowered by the Dutch Agents Association to help performers with advice on the ‘transfer of right’-clauses of their agreements.
Dutch musicians often deal with another collective management organisation: SENA.
SENA has been appointed by the Dutch government, in order to manage remuneration rights on behalf of musicians and record producers. However, SENA’s mandate is restricted by law (article 7 WNR) and merely covers the remuneration rights regarding ‘the public use of phonograms produced for commercial purposes’. In other words, SENA is entitled to license the use of music recordings, whenever played in public or broadcast.
All remaining music rights and claims, are assigned to NORMA.